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The Monument of Culture Exceptional importance Смедерево
SMEDEREVO FORTRESS
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Despot Djuradj Branković who inherited the throne of the despot Stefan Lazarević was forced by historical circumstances to start the construction of a new capital city, since Belgrade got in the possession of Hungary in 1427. Strategic reasons made him chose a place for building the new capital on a plateau at the confluence of the Jezava with the Danube, 10 km of the confluence with Velika Morava.  

The construction began in 1428, in a extreme rush and secrecy and extended efforts as there was no quarry in the vicinity. The nature of the terrain dictated the choice of the triangular shape of the Fortress base. First, a Fortified Court was built, together with five massive towers, a double entrance gate and a smaller additional one. For administrative needs a representative Building with a Hall was constructed near the Danube rampart, together with to this day preserved four big stone windows – biphoras; a living space was the Palace in the South and the Additional Building by the Jezava rampart. A wide water trench was built towards the mainland on the south side. The works were finished in 1430, the evidence represented on a colossal patron inscription on the Cruciform Tower.

The second phase of its construction lasted from 1430 to 1439, when the idea of creating a big capital city was completed. Following the initial architectural plan, a rampart together with 19 collosal towers towards the river and the mainland was additionally built. It protected the area of 10,5 ha.

Even though the Fortress was constructed according to highest standards of contemporary military architecture, it suffered certain modifications already during the construction. An outer  defensive wall with cannon holes around the Fortified Court was built for the reason of artillery introduction into armament. However, all this was insufficient and as early as 1439 till 1444, the Turks conquer Smederevo for the first time. Not long after that, due to internal problems and external pressure, in 1459 Smederevo falls for the second time, signifying the end of medieval Serbian sovereignty.

Difficult historical circumstances caused a rapid development of Smederevo which became a dynamic political, eclasiastical, cultural, merchant and economic center in a very short time, but not long after it was the last capital of the medieval Serbia.

Under the Turkish sovereignty, Smederevo had impermanent significance. In the beginning it was highly important for stabilizing the situation in the north borderlines and for spreading towards the west. At that time outer ramparts and three polygonal cannon towers were erected on the corners and one towards the town. After the Turkish offensive moved to Budapest and Vienna,  just like other forts inside the country, Smederevo loses its significance.

It slightly livened up in the period of Austro – Turkish wars by the end of XVII  century and the beginning of XVIII century during the Austrian governance when another rampart was additionally built. It was a wider palisade rampart linking even very remote, but strategic important locations in the back of the town.

During XX century it suffered heavy destructions in the two World Wars after a bombing and a severe  explosion on 5th June,  1941. After the Second World War it has become a city park.

A particular importance of the Fortress is reflected through the preserved original concept of the town as the most colossal monument of medieval military architecture in Serbia; this is especially stressed out in elaborate works on the arrangement, conservation and restoration which have been present since the explosion to this day with occasional intermissions.